List of Toronto subway stations and Toronto streetcar system loops Most TTC surface routes terminate at loops, side streets or subway station complexes. The TTC system is one of the few mass transit systems in Canada where many surface routes can be accessed inside a paid-fare zone common to other routes or subway lines. This feature allows boarding via the back doors at terminals, reduces the usage of paper transfers, and the need of operators to check for proof-of-payment.
Your research question helps readers to know the specific subject matter you will be addressing within the broad topic of environmental history. For instance, suppose you are interested in market development and its environmental effects.
If you asked, "What is the relationship between market development and environmental degradation? This question does not clearly define the problems you are interested in, nor does it put boundaries on your research project. A well-articulated research question provides you and your readers with critical information about your project by defining the focus of your research, its scope, and your motivation.
Dust Bowl farmer driving tractor with young son near Cland, New Mexico Library of Congress, Digital IDfsa 8b A research question can set boundaries to help you figure out where to go next.
A research question defines which data you need to collect and which methods you will use to access and analyze your documents.
Again, take the Dust Bowl question in the previous paragraph as an example. By narrowing your question to the relationship between large-scale agriculture and the Dust Bowl, you also narrow the scope of data collection and analysis. You may start archival research focusing on agriculture and settlement history, or decide to conduct oral histories concerning farmers' memories of the Dust Bowl.
However, as you collect data, your question is likely to change and grow. Defining questions within your project is not a linear process. Rather, questions will define your directions of inquiry and, in turn, the results of your inquiries will refine your question. Developing research questions is an iterative process evolving with your project.
We have made a figure below to illustrate the process. You will start with something you are interested in. You will then create questions about this thing, and figure out what your next steps will be to investigate those questions further. Picking a topic from projects you have done before could help you find ideas that you are already interested in.
Collect your previous term papers or reports and list the topics you have researched for those projects. Choose one or two that seem promising and relevant to environmental history.
Instead, you should develop a new topic from the old research. Your own interests are a great source to find a topic.
List your interests as many as you can! One of the best ways to generate a topic from a general interest is to look up encyclopedia articles. They usually contain an overview outlining facts on a subject with a concise list of suggested readings. If you go to the library to find encyclopedia articles, you will have a good chance of finding a topic from them.
Current events or timely issues can be a good place to find a promising research question. For example, Hurricane Katrina brought ideas about poverty and environment into the mainstream press, as well as ideas about land-use patterns and natural disasters. Any of these topics would make a good starting place for an environmental history project.
You may read newspapers and magazines, use Wikipedia, or even use Google to find current events. Listen to how people debate these events.
What are people saying? What are their claims, and how do they make these claims? Jot down different ideas and perspectives, ask yourself whether you agree or disagree, and try to formulate interesting questions about what you are reading.
Digital ID Make a note of your everyday observations. You may find a good research topic just from your everyday life. Think about why this particular type of landscape highway systems and road systems formed.
Doing so will help you to come up with a research topic investigating the relationships between highway development and American fast food culture. Remember not to take things for granted. Try to observe through fresh eyes to produce rich research insights.
McDonald's in Times Square, New York City Released to the public domain via Wikimedia Commons, Your personal experiences about an event, a social group, or a place are often worth more exploration. For example, suppose that you are a bird watcher and volunteer at a bird conservation society.
Recently, you have noticed that it has become harder and harder to spot a specific species in the wild. For this reason, you have decided to participate in an initiative to protect the bird.Eyewitnesses Accounts Eric Bart's Pentagon Attack Eyewitness Account Compilation French researcher Eric Bart posted on his website an extensive compilation of eyewitness accounts of the September 11th attack.
The compilation, perhaps the most complete anywhere, is mirrored here. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Our library provides teachers with effective, research-based classroom strategies to help build and strengthen literacy skills in print awareness, phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and writing.
When using any teaching strategy, teachers should (1) help students to. May 16, · An archeologist checks human bones as ancient roman ruins of former barracks were discovered during work on a new underground line, in Rome, Monday, May 16, Volume 6, No. 2, Art. 43 – May Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method.
Barbara B. Kawulich. Abstract: Observation, particularly participant observation, has been used in a variety of disciplines as a tool for collecting data about people, processes, and cultures in qualitative ashio-midori.com paper provides a look at various definitions of participant observation, the.
When Subway Sandwiches uses secondary data to determine the best location for its franchise outlets, this is an example of: 1) site analysis 2) model building 3) causal research study 2) descriptive research study 3) concept test 4).