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Dwivedi, and Joseph G. Jabbra list 8 types of accountability, namely: Political[ edit ] Political accountability is the accountability of the governmentcivil servants and politicians to the public and to legislative bodies such as a congress or a parliament.
Hirschman makes substantial contributions to accountability theory, positing exit or voice as pivotal accountability mechanisms.
The literature connects this disposition of autonomy or dependence to its fiscal capacity. States that are most responsive adjust to exit or voice. All three of these sufficiently broad categories present ways and means of holding the state accountable.
Recall elections can be used to revoke the office of an elected official. Generally, however, voters do not have any direct way of holding elected representatives to account during the term for which they have been elected.
Additionally, some officials and legislators may be appointed rather than elected. Constitutionor statutecan empower a legislative body to hold their own members, the government, and government bodies to account.
This can be through holding an internal or independent inquiry. Inquiries are usually held in response to an allegation of misconduct or corruption. The powers, procedures and sanctions vary from country to country.
The legislature may have the power to impeach the individual, remove them, or suspend them from office for a period of time. The accused person might also decide to resign before trial. Impeachment in the United States has been used both for elected representatives and other civil offices, such as district court judges.
In parliamentary systems, the government relies on the support or parliament, which gives parliament power to hold the government to account. For example, some parliaments can pass a vote of no confidence in the government.
The primary mechanism at a selectorate's disposal is deposition, which is a form of exit.
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Beyond that institutions can act as credible restraints on autocracy as well. Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute found that empowering citizens in developing countries to be able to hold their domestic governments to account was incredibly complex in practice.
However, by developing explicit processes that generate change from individuals, groups or communities Theories of Changeand by fusing political economy analysis and outcome mapping tools, the complex state-citizen dynamics can be better understood. As such, more effective ways to achieve outcomes can hence be generated.
The researchers concluded that CSOs are most effective when they draw in a broad web of actors from across the accountability system, including the media, auditors, donors, the legislature, executive insiders, and political parties. Social accounting and Environmental accounting Within an organization, the principles and practices of ethical accountability aim to improve both the internal standard of individual and group conduct as well as external factors, such as sustainable economic and ecologic strategies.
Also, ethical accountability plays a progressively important role in academic fields, such as laboratory experiments and field research. Debates around the practice of ethical accountability on the part of researchers in the social field — whether professional or others — have been thoroughly explored by Norma R.
That is, accountability is linked to considering carefully, and being open to challenge in relation to, one's choices concerning how research agendas are framed and the styles in which write-ups of research "results" are created. Administrative[ edit ] Internal rules and norms as well as some independent commission are mechanisms to hold civil servants within the administration of government accountable.
Within department or ministry, firstly, behavior is bound by rules and regulations; secondly, civil servants are subordinates in a hierarchy and accountable to superiors. Nonetheless, there are independent "watchdog" units to scrutinize and hold departments accountable; legitimacy of these commissions is built upon their independence, as it avoids any conflicts of interests.
The accountability is defined as "an element which is part of a unique responsibility and which represents an obligation of an actor to achieve the goal, or to perform the procedure of a task, and the justification that it is done to someone else, under threat of sanction".
For example, the use of unique user identification and authentication supports accountability; the use of shared user IDs and passwords destroys accountability. Individuals within organizations[ edit ] Because many different individuals in large organizations contribute in many ways to the decisions and policies, it is difficult even in principle to identify who should be accountable for the results.
This is what is known, following Thompson, as the problem of many hands.
If individuals are held accountable or responsible, individuals who could not have prevented the results are either unfairly punished, or they "take responsibility" in a symbolic ritual without suffering any consequences.DEPOSITION OF ARCHBISHOP EMERITUS REMBERT G.
WEAKLAND, O.S.B. This deposition was taken on June , It offers insights into the management of abuse cases by Archbishop William E. Cousins () and Archbishop Rembert G. Weakland ().
Below is an essay on "Public Accountability" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Do you support that Public accountability an erosion under the current mode of governance and market-oriented reforms?
Feb 21, · AUTHORITY, ACCOUNTABILITY & RESPONSIBILITY By Yusop B. Masdal I. INTRODUCTION Delegation (or deputation) is the assignment of authority and responsibility to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities (Blair, gerald ).
 Political accountability Political accountability is the accountability of the government, civil servants and politicians to the public and to legislative bodies such as congress or parliament. In a few cases, recall elections can be used to revoke the office of an elected official.
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