The Great Global Warming Hoax? Our planet has been slowly warming since last emerging from the "Little Ice Age" of the 17th century, often associated with the Maunder Minimum. Before that came the " Medieval Warm Period ", in which temperatures were about the same as they are today.
An apparent downward trend from a "Medieval Warm Period," roughly as warm as the s, into the cooler "Little Ice Age" gave way to a steep rise in the 20th century. The movement from warm to cool and back toward warm had been debated by Lamb and other historians and climatologists since the s; what was new and startling was the abrupt climb since the s.
The temperatures of the s soared to the top of the chart. Apparently had been not just the warmest year of the century, but of the millennium. The graph shown below was widely reprinted and made a strong impression.
It was dubbed the "hockey stick" because it displayed a flat thousand-year trend followed by a sharp upward turn. The image immediately became a powerful tool for people who were trying to raise public awareness of global warming — to the regret of some seasoned climate experts who recognized that, like all science at the point of publication, the graph was preliminary and uncertain.
The dedicated minority who denied that there was any global warming problem promptly attacked the calculations.
For example, in a few scientists argued that the Earth had been as warm a thousand years ago as in the late 20th century. They found a scattering of warm and cold periods in different places at different times, overall below the level of the recent general warming.
It turned out that the supposed Medieval Warm Period had caught the eye of historical climatologists because it was prominent in well-studied parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Greenland had been particularly warm. The Arctic in general, however, had been mostly cool until the steep rise of the late 20th century.
Northern continental areas and a few southern regions had been particularly cold, but some other regions had been about as warm as at present.
None of this was as striking a global phenomenon as the recent rapid warming. They found that the world at the opening of the 21st century was unquestionably warmer than at any time in the past two millennia. The other study used a variety of climate proxies from sea-floor sediments, plus some terrestrial ones, to get highly accurate data far into the past.
Their graph showed a rise at the end of the last glacial period, fairly steady temperatures to around BCE, and then a gradual decline — until the abrupt rise in the 20th century, shooting back to the level of the warm period around BCE and on track to climb beyond. A few critics continued to seek confirmation of their denial of the warming in data on air temperatures from weather stations and satellites.
In particular, former TV weatherman Anthony Watts established a popular website that mobilized people to report continental U. They found that any bias introduced by poor siting had been mostly compensated for by the data reduction, which was designed precisely to remove biases by comparisons over regions and time.
A painstaking re-analysis of land-station data was organized by warming skeptic Richard Muller and funded by oil billionaire Charles G. Koch, a leading sponsor of groups that attacked the climate consensus.
The study, using different methods and more data than earlier teams, only confirmed what every other study had found.
People dedicated to denying global warming retreated to an old claim based on a different dataset, the satellite measurements of mid-atmosphere temperatures Christy and Spencer data, see above. A temperature graph based on convoluted analysis of the raw data, displayed even in the US Senate, had not risen above the peak.
As before, the analysis was found to have problems that had concealed an actual rise compatible with the models. Anyway in even the uncorrected graph leaped above the peak. Still more unequivocal, the upper layers of water in ocean basins — which were gradually absorbing most of the heat energy — showed an increasingly clear pattern of recent warming.
See above and see graph below. The pattern roughly matched what computer modellers had expected would result from the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the air, but not warming from any other cause.
Submarine volcanoes, for example, would warm from the bottom, but the oceans were warming from the top down. Deniers found a chance to question this too, when a paper was published in reporting that the oceans had cooled in the past few years.
However, the authors soon announced that they had made an embarrassing mistake in the way they had compared the data from older and newer instruments. It was just another example of the difficulties of interpreting science amid an uproar of politicized controversy.All my history essays will conclude with how hard it is being black.
Global warming is the greatest challenge facing our planet. It is, in fact, the increase in the temperature of the earth’s neon- surface air. It is one of the most current and widely discussed factors.
It has far-reaching impact on biodiversity and climatic conditions of the planet. Several current trends clearly demonstrate that global warming [ ]. Write my essay in time! Order papers from our professional team that offers paper writing on any type of topic.
Fast, cheap and unique! How rising temperatures and melting ice have affected the habitats of five species of the swimming birds. photo; video; Essay writing for global warming Essay writing for global warming; Essay writing for global warming; November 18, Leave a comment By.
Referencing in law essays uk is an analytical essay in first person. Critical self reflection essay essay on character leadership and service an short essay on republic day educational.
Studybay is an academic writing service for students: essays, term papers, dissertations and much more! We're trusted and chosen by many students all over the world!