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History[ edit ] While a literature of reform had already appeared by the midth century, the kind of reporting that would come to be called "muckraking" began to appear around Louis" in McClure's October issue was called the first muckraking article.
Changes in journalism prior to [ edit ] Nellie Bly The muckrakers would become known for their investigative journalism, evolving from the eras of "personal journalism"—a term historians Emery and Emery used in The Press and America 6th ed.
One of the biggest urban scandals of the post-Civil War era was the corruption and bribery case of Tammany boss William M.
Tweed in that was uncovered by newspapers. In his first muckraking article "Tweed Days in St. Louis," Lincoln Steffens exposed the grafta system of political corruption, that was ingrained in St. While some muckrakers had already worked for reform newspapers of the personal journalism variety, such as Steffens who was a reporter for the New York Evening Post under Edwin Lawrence Godkin other muckrakers had worked for yellow journals before moving on to magazines aroundsuch as Charles Edward Russell who was a journalist and editor of Joseph Pulitzer 's New York World.
Note that in yellow journalism, the idea was to stir up the public with sensationalism, and thus sell more papers.
If, in the process, a social wrong was exposed that the average man could get indignant about, that was fine, but it was not the intent to correct social wrongs as it was with true investigative journalists and muckrakers.
Julius Chambers of the New York Tribunecould be considered to be the original muckraker. Chambers undertook a journalistic investigation of Bloomingdale Asylum inhaving himself committed with the help of some of his friends and his newspaper's city editor.
His intent was to obtain information about alleged abuse of inmates. When articles and accounts of the experience were published in the Tribune, it led to the release of twelve patients who were not mentally ill, a reorganization of the staff and administration of the institution and, eventually, to a change in the lunacy laws.
From this time onward, Chambers was frequently invited to speak on the rights of the mentally ill and the need for proper facilities for their accommodation, care and treatment. Wells — — an author of a series of articles concerning Jim Crow laws and the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad inand co-owned the newspaper The Free Speech in Memphis in which she began an anti-lynching campaign.
Flower - author of articles in The Arena from through advocating for prison reform and prohibition of alcohol. The muckrakers appeared at a moment when journalism was undergoing changes in style and practice.
Muckraking publishers like Samuel S.
McClurealso emphasized factual reporting,  but he also wanted what historian Michael Schudson had identified as one of the preferred qualities of journalism at the time, namely, the mixture of "reliability and sparkle" to interest a mass audience.
While the muckrakers continued the investigative exposures and sensational traditions of yellow journalism, they wrote to change society.
Their work reached a mass audience as circulation figures of the magazines rose on account of visibility and public interest.This form provides a method of communicating the initial known details of a possible information security incident within an organization.
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