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History[ edit ] Ina national council made up of representatives of thirty government and private organizations was formed to address the problem of ensuring English language proficiency for non-native speakers wishing to study at U.
This council recommended the development and administration of the TOEFL exam for the time frame. Nations which are part of the English-speaking world from most Commonwealth realms to former British colonies e.
However, this does not apply to some Commonwealth nations outside the Anglospheresuch as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc.
The CBT was discontinued in September and these scores are no longer valid[ citation needed ]. Initially, the demand for test seats was higher than availability, and candidates had to wait for months. It is now possible to take the test within one to four weeks in most countries.
The test cannot be taken more than once every 12 days. The passages are on academic topics; they are the kind of material that might be found in an undergraduate university textbook. Passages require understanding of rhetorical functions such as cause-effect, compare-contrast and argumentation.
Students answer questions about main ideas, details, inferences, essential information, sentence insertion, vocabulary, rhetorical purpose and overall ideas.
Prior knowledge of the subject under discussion is not necessary to come to the correct answer. Listening The Listening section consists of questions on passages, each 3—5 minutes in length. These passages include two student conversations and four academic lectures or discussions.
The conversations involve a student and either a professor or a campus service provider. The lectures are a self-contained portion of an academic lecture, which may involve student participation and does not assume specialized background knowledge in the subject area.
Each conversation and lecture passage is heard only once. Test-takers may take notes while they listen and they may refer to their notes when they answer the questions. Each conversation is associated with five questions and each lecture with six. The questions are meant to measure the ability to understand main ideas, important details, implications, relationships between ideas, organization of information, speaker purpose and speaker attitude.
Speaking The Speaking section consists of six tasks: In the two independent tasks, test-takers answer opinion questions on familiar topics.
They are evaluated on their ability to speak spontaneously and convey their ideas clearly and coherently. In two of the integrated tasks, test-takers read a short passage, listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and answer a question by combining appropriate information from the text and the talk.
In the two remaining integrated tasks, test-takers listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and then respond to a question about what they heard. In the integrated tasks, test-takers are evaluated on their ability to appropriately synthesize and effectively convey information from the reading and listening material.
Test-takers may take notes as they read and listen and may use their notes to help prepare their responses. Test-takers are given a short preparation time before they have to begin speaking. Writing The Writing section measures a test taker's ability to write in an academic setting and consists of two tasks: In the integrated task, test-takers read a passage on an academic topic and then listen to a speaker discuss it.
The test-taker then writes a summary about the important points in the listening passage and explains how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. In the independent task, the test-taker must write an essay that states their opinion or choice, and then explain it, rather than simply listing personal preferences or choices.ashio-midori.com 10th, 12th, tntet, trb, tnpsc, study materials, online tests, latest educational tamil news.
Help Desk Central. Help Desk Central assists Texas A&M students, faculty and staff with their IT questions by phone, email, chat, in person and on the web. General Studies 1 Paper Syllabus for UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam consists of the below major areas: Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.
A test or examination (informally, exam or evaluation) is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs).
A test may be administered verbally, on paper, on a computer, or in a predetermined area that requires a test taker to demonstrate or perform a set of skills.
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