Background[ edit ] Face-negotiation theory is primarily based on the research of Brown and Levinson. In this theory, "face" is a metaphor for self-image, which originates from two Chinese conceptualizations: Lien is the internal moral face that involves shame, integrity, debasement, and honor issues.
David Yau-fai Ho It is both a prerogative and an implicit obligation for the socially prominent to be particular about. Face, Hsien-chin Hu says, can be borrowed, struggled for, added to, padded, — all terms indicating a gradual increase in volume. It is built up through initial high position, wealth, power, ability, through cleverly establishing social ties to a number of prominent people, as well as through avoidance of acts that would Face saving negotiation strategies unfavorable comment.
Ho qualified this dichotomy: However, we may continue to use these terms in the senses that Hu has defined.
Succinctly, among college subjects, loss of mianzi is more definitely tied to failure to measure up to one's sense of self-esteem or to what is expected by others, Face saving negotiation strategies loss of lian is closely tied to transgression of social codes.
Hu's forty-year-old distinction between the two Chinese concepts of faces appears to stand very well, even today. For a person to maintain face is important with Chinese social relations because face translates into power and influence and affects goodwill.
English[ edit ] The English semantic field for "face" words meaning "prestige; honor" is smaller than the corresponding Chinese field, but historical dictionaries more accurately record its history.
The Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed. The OED2 Face 10 definition distinguishes meanings between native 10a. The country begins to feel that Government consented to arrangements by which China has lost face; the officials have long been conscious that they are becoming ridiculous in the eyes of the people, seeing that where a foreigner is concerned they can neither enforce a Chinese right, nor redress a Chinese grievance, even on Chinese soil.
OED defines Save 8 "To keep, protect or guard a thing from damage, loss, or destruction", and elaborates, 8f. Similarly, to save another's face. For the earliest usage examples, the OED gives the following.
Save one's face is recorded in the Westminster Gazette April 5, Previous writers on face have treated losing face and gaining face simply as if they were opposite outcomes in a social encounter and have thus failed to notice the basic difference between two social processes that are involved.
In the first instance, while it is meaningful to speak of both losing and gaining mien-tzu it is meaningful to speak only of losing lien. One does not speak of gaining lien because, regardless of one's station in life, one is expected to behave in accordance with the precepts of the culture; correctly conceptualized, exemplary conduct adds not to one's lien, but to one's mien-tzu.
The lose verb in lose face means "fail to maintain" cf. Another usage example is give facewhich is included in the Wiktionary but not the OED2.
Among the English words of Chinese originlose face is an uncommon verb phrase and a unique semantic loan translation. Most Anglo-Chinese borrowings are nouns Yuan English face meaning "prestige; honor" is the only case of a Chinese semantic loan.
Semantic loans extend an indigenous word's meaning in conformity with a foreign model e. The vast majority of English words from Chinese are ordinary loanwords with regular phonemic adaptation e. A few are calques where a borrowing is blended with native elements e.
Face meaning "prestige" is technically a "loan synonym" owing to semantic overlap between the native English meaning "outward semblance; effrontery" and the borrowed Chinese meaning "prestige; dignity".
John Orr coined the term "invisible exports" to describe how French forme, ouverte, and courir borrowed the sports meanings of English form, open, and run. Chinese lose face is an imperceptible English import because it appears to be a predictable semantic extension of face, and not a noticeable foreign borrowing.
This invisible face "prestige; status" loan is, Chan and Kwok Chan and Kwok write, The Chinese has supplied a specific "name" for a "thing" embodying qualities not expressed or possibly not fully expressed, by a number of terms in English.
The aptness of the figurative extension has probably also played a part Carr concludes, The nearest English synonyms of the apt figurative face are prestige, honor, respect, dignity, status, reputation, social acceptance, or good name.
Prestige is not necessary; one can easily live without it, but hardly without "face". The entire Arab culture of social and family behavior is based around Islamic concepts of dignity, or "Face", which has its basis in the social and family ranking system found in the Treatise of Rights, Al-Risalah al-HuquqIslam's primary source for social behaviors.
White-facedness meaning "proud" opposite of Ro seyahi are used.This discussion was held at the 3 day executive education workshop for senior executives at the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School. Guhan Subramanian is the Professor of Law and Business at the Harvard Law School and Professor of Business Law at the Harvard Business School.
Companies undertake administrative cost reductions for a number of reasons—to protect earnings, to gain synergies from an acquisition, to stave off bankruptcy. The Four Faces of Face Face-Restoration or Self Negative-Face is the need to give oneself freedom and space and to protect self from other’s infringement on one’s autonomy.
Face-Saving or Other Negative-Face is the need to signal respect for the other person’s need for freedom, space, and dissociation. Face-saving is important for many, but is particularly important in cultures where personal status is the primary means of trusting relationships, in contrast to where there is .
I recently engaged in a discussion of the Efficient Market Theory at the Early Retirement Extreme ashio-midori.com thread is titled Is Efficient Market a Theory, Hypothesis, Fact, Law or Notion?. Juicy Excerpt #1: I want to be fair in my descriptions.I don’t want to underplay the extent to which I believe the evidence has been misinterpreted.
Saving face is preserving one's social status after a failure, mistake or disagreement. A person may attempt to save their own face and people in a group may help them. Alternatively, members of a group may attempt to embarrass or humiliate someone who has made a mistake, causing them to lose face.