Background information on critical thinking

History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato.

Background information on critical thinking

History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato.

Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.

He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief. He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well.

His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic Questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy. In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency. Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational thinking or lack of reliable knowledge.

Socrates demonstrated that having authority does not ensure accurate knowledge. He established the method of questioning beliefs, closely inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale. Plato recorded Socrates' teachings and carried on the tradition of critical thinking.

Aristotle and subsequent Greek skeptics refined Socrates' teachings, using systematic thinking and asking questions to ascertain the true nature of reality beyond the way things appear from a glance.

Critical thinking was described by Richard W. Paul as a movement in two waves Its details vary amongst those who define it. According to Barry K. Beyercritical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments.

During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged.

39th Annual International Conference on Critical T

National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking [7] defines critical thinking as the "intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

Definitions[ edit ] Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows: Critical thinking is not 'hard' thinking nor is it directed at solving problems other than 'improving' one's own thinking.

Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker. One does not use critical thinking to solve problems—one uses critical thinking to improve one's process of thinking. Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices.

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Objectives

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message The ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking.CRITHINKEDU, or 'Critical Thinking Across the European Higher Education Curricula,' is a project funded by the European Commission.

Arising from the background and experience of higher-education institutions, businesses, and other organizations from nine different European countries, the venture aims to assess and improve the quality of reasoning that is taught and learned in Europe's.

Critical Thinking: What is it? How do we do it? How does language affect critical thinking and writing? Lack of relevant background information Poor reading skills Bias Prejudice Superstition Egocentrism (self-centered thinking) Sociocentrism (group-centered thinking) Peer pressure Thus, we we do critical thinkings, we step back from.

Critical Thinking Chapter 4. STUDY. what degree of probability should we assign to a claim that conflicts with our background information? Critical Reasoning Chapter 5. 34 terms. Critical Thinking Chapter 3.

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26 terms. Critical Thinking Chapter 2. 30 terms.

Background information on critical thinking

Critical Thinking Test in Sociology Page 4 of 13 ©Venessa Keesler, Michigan State University, Test Questions 1) Looking at the conceptual framework (or background information) presented by.

The intellectual roots of critical thinking are as ancient as its etymology, traceable, ultimately, to the teaching practice and vision of Socrates 2, years ago who discovered by a method of probing questioning that people could not rationally justify their confident claims to knowledge.

Confused. A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul, presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and.

critical thinking - facts, beliefs and world views by Jane Ambrose on Prezi